The Fascists came to associate the term with the ancient Roman fasces or fascio littorio  —a bundle of rods tied around an axe,  an ancient Roman symbol of the authority of the civic magistrate  carried by his lictorswhich could be used for corporal and capital punishment at his command. Definitions of fascism Historians, political scientists and other scholars have long debated the exact nature of fascism.
See Article History Gaetano Mosca, born April 1,PalermoSicily, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies [now in Italy]—died November 8,RomeItalyItalian jurist and political theorist who, by applying a historical method to political ideas and institutions, elaborated the concept of a ruling minority classe politica present in all societies.
His theory seemed to have its greatest influence on apologists for fascism who misunderstood his view. Educated at the University of Palermo, Mosca taught constitutional law there —88 and at the Universities of Rome —96 and Turin — A member of the Italian Chamber of Deputies beginning inhe served as undersecretary of state for the colonies from to and was made a senator for life by King Victor Emmanuel III in His final speech in the Senate was an attack on the Italian fascist leader Benito Mussolini.
In these and other writings, but especially in The Ruling Class, he asserted—contrary to theories of majority rule—that societies are necessarily governed by minorities: He showed an impartial indifference to the most diverse political philosophies. For him the will of God, the will of the people, the sovereign will of the state, and the dictatorship of the proletariat were all mythical.
Learn More in these related Britannica articles:An analysis of the german political theorist robert michels on the idea of an iron law of oligarchy Posted by on Nov 8, in Copywriting | 0 comments Home» Copywriting» An analysis of the german political theorist robert michels on the idea of an iron law of oligarchy.
The “iron law of oligarchy,” one of the most influential theories of governance in voluntary organizations that was developed by the German sociologist and political theorist Robert Michels (), encapsulates these perspectives.
Sociologist Michels developed the iron law of oligarchy where, he asserts, social and political organizations are run by few individuals, and social organization and labor division are key.
He believed that all organizations were elitist and that elites have three basic principles that help in the bureaucratic structure of. Robert Michels (German: [ˈmɪçəls]; 9 January , Cologne, Germany – 3 May , Rome, Italy) was a German-born Italian sociologist who contributed to elite theory by describing the political behavior of intellectual elites.
He belonged to the Italian school of elitism.
The Philosophy of Social Science. The philosophy of social science can be described broadly as having two aims.
|THE LAW AND POLITICS||Like Schumpeter, Geiger, Mannheim, Lukacs, de Man, and Ortega, he grappled with the problems of democracy, socialism, revolution, class conflict, trade unionism, mass society, nationalism, and imperialism, and with the role of intellectuals and of elites. He dealt more extensively than did these contemporaries of his with the politics of the working class, and he studied some topics that interested them little, such as eugenics, feminism, sex, and morality.|
First, it seeks to produce a rational reconstruction of social science. CRITIQUE OF ROBERT MICHELS” IDEOLOGY-A REPLY TO BEETHAM’S R. J. BENNETT the political theorist who critically examines Plato’s contention that there are Beetham’s critique simply misses the point of the ’iron law of oligarchy’.
The logical import of this hypothesis transcends its source of origin. The ‘law’ can.