Thus, the motive of the person who commits an act of euthanasia is to benefit the one whose death is brought about. It is important to emphasize the motive of benefiting the person who is assisted to die because well-being is a key value in relation to the morality of euthanasia.
However, there is a wide range of indirect suicidal behaviors in which death results gradually rather than immediately, and in which the degree of intentionality is less obvious than in an overt suicide attempt.
Defining Indirect Suicidal Behavior Robert Kastenbaum and Brian Mishara, in their discussion of the concept of premature death and its relationship to self-injurious behavior, suggested that behaviors that shorten life are varied in form and widespread. They recognized that in one sense all human behavior affects a person's life expectancy.
Some obvious examples of potentially life-shortening behavior include smoking cigarettes, taking risks when driving, and ignoring doctors' orders. On the other hand, life span can be prolonged by exercising regularly, eating well, using care when crossing the street, and driving an automobile in good condition equipped with air bags while always wearing a seat belt.
Indirect suicidal behavior is thus a matter of probabilities rather An discussion on voluntary euthanasia certainties. Not taking one's heart medication or crossing the street carelessly will certainly increase the probability of a premature death.
However, the timing of the occurrence of a subsequent heart attack is unknown; some people cross recklessly and live a long life, while others are hit by a car and die the first time they are not careful. Similarly, smoking cigarettes is clearly associated with a reduction in life expectancy, and most people know this, including smokers.
However, as many smokers will point out, there is usually a case of a person someone knows who has smoked for decades and lived to old age. Suicides are often deemed indirect where there is no immediate and clearly identifiable intentionality.
The pioneer suicidologist Edwin Shneidman spoke of "subintentioned death" and "indirect suicide"p. He felt that orientations toward death, or "toward cessation," fall into four categories, which include intentioned, subintentioned, unintentioned, and contraintentioned.
Suicide is by definition generally considered to be intentioned. Accidental deaths are unintentioned, and his category of "contraintention" includes people who feign death and threaten death.
He specifies four groups of persons who have subintentional orientations. First, there is the "death-chancer" who gambles with death by doing things that leave death "up to chance. The "death-hasteners" are individuals who unconsciously aggravate a physiological disequilibrium to hasten death.
Death-hasteners may engage in a dangerous lifestyle, such as abusing the body, using alcohol or drugs, exposing themselves to the elements, or not eating a proper diet. The "death-capitulators," by virtue of some strong emotion, play a psychological role in hastening their own demise.
These people give in to death or "scare themselves to death. Shneidman's fourth and final category is the "death-experimenter," who does not wish consciously to end his or her life but who appears to wish for a chronically altered or "befogged" state of existence.
This includes alcoholics and barbiturate addicts. Interpretations by Freud and His Followers Although Freud did not discuss indirect suicide, he developed the concept of the death instinct later in his life. It was his student Karl Menninger who elaborated on the concept of a death instinct, Thanatos, which he viewed as being in constant conflict with the opposing force of the life instinct, or Eros.
According to Menninger, there is an inherent tendency toward self-destruction that may, when not sufficiently counterbalanced by the life instincts, result in both direct and indirect self-destructive behavior. Norman Farberow expanded upon Menninger's theory and developed a classification system for what he called "indirect self-destructive behavior.
The impact of indirect self-destructive behaviors is most often long-term and frequently permanent, so that only the results are clearly apparent. Unlike direct suicidal behavior, indirect self-destructive behavior is not linked to a specific precipitating stress; hence this behavior is not sudden or impulsive.
Unlike completed suicides and suicide attempts, indirect self-destructive behavior does not entail a threat to end one's own life; nor does it involve clear messages that indicate a death wish. Indirect self-destructive people are generally self-concerned and unable to invest much of themselves in a relationship with significant others.
They are often alone and have limited social support systems. In contrast, the suicide attempts of the direct self-destructive are often related to the loss of a significant other.NZ Herald: Shane Jones announces suite of regional funding worth more than $80m More than $80 million from the $3 billion Provincial Growth Fund will boost rural broadband, expand a driver-training centre near Fielding, and look into building a new freight hub near Palmerston North.
Preface Varrack approached me about doing this debate, and I think it will be an interesting discussion. Euthanasia is an important question now more than ever, as more and more places begin considering the merits of some form of euthanasia.
Cases from history (An appeal by the Scottish Voluntary Euthanasia Society) In March Anthony Bland had lain in persistent vegetative state for three years before a Court Order allowed his degradation and indignity to come to a merciful close.
The judges said that if he had made a living will expressing his future wishes he could have been allowed to die in peace earlier. The entry sets out five conditions often said to be necessary for anyone to be a candidate for legalized voluntary euthanasia (and, with appropriate qualifications, physician-assisted suicide), outlines the moral case advanced by those in favor of legalizing voluntary euthanasia, and discusses the five most important objections made by those who deny .
Top 10 Reasons Euthanasia Should Be Legal Everywhere “Dying is not a crime” – Jack Kevorkian Dr.
Jack Kevorkian. Helga Esteb / caninariojana.com Euthanasia, from the Greek word meaning “good death”, is the practice of assisted suicide with the intention of relieving pain and suffering.
Jun 13, · Euthanasia is the deliberate killing of a person for the benefit of that person. In most cases euthanasia is carried out because the person who dies asks for it, but there are cases called.