APSa clinical-stage company developing highly differentiated therapeutics targeting the underlying mechanisms of cancer, today announced that dosing has commenced in the first patient in its Phase 1b clinical study of APTO in patients with relapsed or refractory hematologic malignancies. APTO is the only known clinical-stage molecule that can directly inhibit expression of the MYC oncogene, shown to reprogram survival signaling pathways in cells and thereby transform cells and contribute to drug resistance in many malignancies, including acute myeloid leukemia AML. Indeed, we hope this thoughtful approach will allow expeditious escalation to higher dose levels and may provide greater benefit to the AML patients.
Turtles are among the most threatened of the major groups of vertebrates, in general, more so than birds, mammals, fishes or even the much besieged amphibians. Reasons for the dire situation of turtles worldwide include the familiar list of impacts to other species including habitat destruction, unsustainable overexploitation for pets and food, and climate change many turtles have environmental sex determination.
Two notable characteristics of pre-Anthropocene turtles were their massive population sizes and correspondingly high biomasses, the latter among the highest values over kilograms per hectare ever reported for animals.
As a result of their numerical dominance, turtles have played important roles as significant bioturbators of soils, infaunal miners of sea floors, dispersers and germination enhancers of seeds, nutrient cyclers, and consumers.
The collapse of turtle populations on a global scale has greatly diminished their ecological roles. Turtles are so universally recognized by virtually all cultures and age groups that it is easy to see them as merely commonplace animals, even though many are far from common.
This prosaic status makes them easy to take for granted or even overlook as important ecosystem components worthy of protection. The word turtle applies to all animals with a bony shell and a backbone, whether they are locally referred to as turtles, tortoises, or terrapins Ernst and Lovich That such remarkable and familiar animals are considered by many to be ordinary is unfortunate, because no vertebrate animal that has ever lived has possessed the unique architecture of turtles, with their limb girdles encased inside a bony shell.
As previous paleontologists have noted, if they were known only from fossils, they would be cause for wonder. Turtles are an ancient group going back over million years Ernst and Lovich Their enduring success is due in no small part to a conservative morphology and time-tested adaptations that allowed them to outlive even the dinosaurs, which disappea red over 65 million years ago, when turtles were already an old lineage.
Turtles are struggling to persist in the modern world, and that fact is generally unrecognized or even ignored. Scientists identify 14 living families and many extinct ones. Turtles are arguably the most threatened of the major groups of vertebrates in general and are proportionately more so than birds, mammals, fishes or even the much-besieged and heavily publicized amphibians Hoffmann et al.
The vulnerability of turtles, in part, is due to a global focus by conservation programs to prioritize and target areas that protect birds and mammals but do not adequately consider turtle diversity Roll et al.
Specific examples of the recent plight of turtles are exemplified by several species worldwide. For example, some turtle species are no longer found in their native habitat and exist only in captivity.
One such species, the Yangtze giant softshell turtle Rafetus swinhoei is reduced to perhaps four surviving individuals, and only one is known to be a female. For the past 8 or more years, she has not produced fertile eggs, despite international efforts to propagate the species, including the use of artificial insemination.
Others, such as the beautiful Burmese star tortoise Geochelone platynota and the less-charismatic western swamp turtle Pseudemydura umbrinaAustralia's rarest reptile, are among the 25 most endangered turtles in the world Turtle Conservation Coalitionrequiring captive breeding and intensive management to keep them from extinction.
Reasons for the dire situation turtles face worldwide include the familiar litany of impacts to other species Gibbons et al. Disease has also contributed to the rapid decline and near extinction of some turtle species Spencer et al. The fate of turtles is especially tragic in light of their distinction as paragons of evolutionary success.
They survived everything nature could throw at them from both Earth and outer space e. Hominids have overused turtles as part of a subsistence diet since the development of Oldowan stone technology in Africa 2. Being slow, terrestrial, and defenseless, tortoises became an easy mark for early, as well as more recent, hominids White et al.
The exploitation of turtles has been exacerbated in the modern age e. Tragically, as some desirable species become rarer, the demand for them increases in the illegal pet trade, accelerating their decline.
The collapse of turtle populations on a global scale has greatly diminished their ecological roles as important members of their biotic communities. Our objective is to bring attention to the plight of turtles and identify what we will lose from an ecological perspective as they continue to decline and disappear.
One way to increase recognition of the value of species is to look at the services they provide to an ecosystem, including those increasingly dominated by humans. The perceived functional roles of various organisms in their environments have been topics of great interest to ecologists. Population declines can lead to function loss in ecosystems that may not be immediately apparent.
Numerous publications now document the important ecological roles a wide variety of species provide in their environments, but in few have the roles turtles play been examined.
In the present article, we review the various functional roles that large populations and diverse communities of turtles provide from an ecological perspective, expanding on an earlier, brief review Ernst and Lovich A major goal is to place turtles within the overall context of ecosystem processes and services including energy flow, trophic status, mineral cycling, scavenging, and soil dynamics.
Identifying these critical ecological roles is one step toward offering rationales for concerted efforts to conserve these emblematic creatures that have accompanied us into the Anthropocene, a time of extinction and decline for many terrestrial vertebrates Dirzo et al.
The term Anthropocene is not formally recognized by the US Geological Survey as a description of geologic time. We use it here informally.The Távora family and the Duke of Aveiro were implicated and executed after a quick trial. which abolished the regime and instated republicanism in Portugal.
First Republic and Estado Novo Portugal's central bank is the Banco de Portugal, an integral part of . Massively parallel sequencing has revealed many de novo mutations in the etiology of developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (EEs), highlighting their genetic heterogeneity.
Additional candidate genes have been prioritized in silico by their co-expression in the caninariojana.com: Bioscience IT Specialist at The .
Julio Valenzuela Departamento de Anatomía y Medicina Legal de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Chile Creation and Idealization of anatomical 3d models for . We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us.
Discussion and Conclusions: Daily step count in nonexercising people recruited for this intervention trial with de novo Parkinson disease approached sedentary lifestyle levels. Further study is warranted for elucidating factors explaining ambulatory activity, particularly cardiorespiratory fitness, and fear/worry of .
Clinical Research: The To-Do List Goes On and On. Everyone has a “To-Do” List or lists; Things to do at work, at home, during the week, on the weekends, sometimes even on vacations.