Initially, the Protestant reformers maintained the hope that they could accomplish the reformation of the doctrine and life of the church from within, but this proved impossible because of the intransigence of the church, the polemic of the Protestant movements, or the political and… The world of the late medieval Roman Catholic Church from which the 16th-century reformers emerged was a complex one. Over the centuries the church, particularly in the office of the papacyhad become deeply involved in the political life of western Europe.
Initially, the Protestant reformers maintained the hope that they could accomplish the reformation of the doctrine and life of the church from within, but this proved impossible because of the intransigence of the church, the polemic of the Protestant movements, or the political and… The Reformation of the 16th century was not unprecedented.
Reformation, also called Protestant Reformation, the religious revolution that took place in the Western church in the 16th century. Its greatest leaders undoubtedly were Martin Luther and John Calvin. The Reformation (more fully the Protestant Reformation, or the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th-century Europe. Being naked is the #1 most sustainable option. Reformation is #2. We make sustainable women’s clothing and accessories. Free US shipping and returns.
Reformers within the medieval church such as St. Francis of AssisiValdes founder of the WaldensiansJan Husand John Wycliffe addressed aspects in the life of the church in the centuries before In the 16th century Erasmus of Rotterdama great humanist scholar, was the chief proponent of liberal Catholic reform that attacked popular superstitions in the church and urged the imitation of Christ as the supreme moral teacher.
In his Ninety-five Theses, he attacked the indulgence system, insisting that the pope had no authority over purgatory and that the doctrine of the merits of the saints had no foundation in the gospel.
Scripture alone is authoritative sola scriptura and justification is by faith sola fidenot by works. While he did not intend to break with the Catholic church, a confrontation with the papacy was not long in coming.
In Luther was excommunicated ; what began as an internal reform movement had become a fracture in western Christendom. The sale of indulgences in church; woodcut from the title page of Luther's pamphlet On Aplas von Rom, published anonymously in Augsburg, Courtesy of the trustees of the British Museum; photograph, John R.
The Reformation movement within Germany diversified almost immediately, and other reform impulses arose independently of Luther. Zwingli agreed with Luther in the centrality of the doctrine of justification by faith, but he espoused a different understanding of the Holy Communion.
Courtesy of the Kunstmuseum Winterthur, Switz. Called Anabaptiststhey remained a marginal phenomenon in the 16th century but survived—despite fierce persecution—as Mennonites and Hutterites into the 21st century. Opponents of the ancient Trinitarian dogma made their appearance as well.
Known as Sociniansafter the name of their founder, they established flourishing congregations, especially in Poland. Another important form of Protestantism as those protesting against their suppressions were designated by the Diet of Speyer in is Calvinismnamed for John Calvina French lawyer who fled France after his conversion to the Protestant cause.
In BaselSwitzerland, Calvin brought out the first edition of his Institutes of the Christian Religion inthe first systematic, theological treatise of the new reform movement. However, he found a more positive place for law within the Christian community than did Luther. In GenevaCalvin was able to experiment with his ideal of a disciplined community of the elect.
Calvin also stressed the doctrine of predestination and interpreted Holy Communion as a spiritual partaking of the body and blood of Christ.
The Reformation spread to other European countries over the course of the 16th century. By mid century, Lutheranism dominated northern Europe.
Eastern Europe offered a seedbed for even more radical varieties of Protestantism, because kings were weak, nobles strong, and cities few, and because religious pluralism had long existed.
Spain and Italy were to be the great centres of the Catholic Counter-Reformationand Protestantism never gained a strong foothold there. In spite of its political implicationsthe reorganization of the church permitted the beginning of religious change in England, which included the preparation of a liturgy in English, the Book of Common Prayer.
In ScotlandJohn Knoxwho spent time in Geneva and was greatly influenced by John Calvin, led the establishment of Presbyterianismwhich made possible the eventual union of Scotland with England.
For further treatment of the Reformation, see Protestantism, history of. For a discussion of the religious doctrine, see Protestantism. Holbein, Hans, the Younger:The Counter-Reformation (Latin: Contrareformatio), also called the Catholic Reformation [dubious – discuss] The Counter Reformation () expresses the older view that it was a movement of reactionary conservatism.
Harline, Craig. As we approach the th anniversary of the Reformation, Professor Eamon Duffy joins us to discuss some of the big questions about the religious upheavals .
Even if the Pope had done this, were there other historical factors at work that made the Reformation impossible to stop? What were these factors and which were most important? Primary Sources (feel free to use these to support your argument).
Reformation, also called Protestant Reformation, the religious revolution that took place in the Western church in the 16th century.
Its greatest leaders undoubtedly were Martin Luther and John Calvin. Watch video · The Reformation was a 16th-century religious and political challenge to papal authority in Catholic Europe.
Read more about Martin Luther, the Thirty Years War and the Counter-Reformation. This paper will discuss Lutheran Reformation, The Anabaptist, and The English Puritans as well as the Catholic Reformation also known as the Counter Reformation. It is the hope that after the reader has had the opportunity to view each of the characteristics and the expressions of each of the reformation the reader will have a better.