History of labour law Labour law arose in parallel with the Industrial Revolution as the relationship between worker and employer changed from small-scale production studios to large-scale factories. Workers sought better conditions and the right to join or avoid joining a labour unionwhile employers sought a more predictable, flexible and less costly workforce.
Recent discussion of sexual harassment at work has focused on a few high-profile industries. But there has been relatively little credible research as to how rates really differ by occupation type. The percent of people who report sexual harassment varies wildly from survey to survey — thus studies finding that anywhere from 12 percent to 48 percent to 60 percent to 85 percent of women have been harassed at work.
Why do all these numbers differ so dramatically? The most important issue seems to be how you ask the question. Taking these surveys entirely seriously would lead to the conclusion that Uber has the lowest sexual harassment rate of any company or industry in the world; I choose not to take them seriously.
This means we need investigations that use the same methodology across multiple fields. Employment law sexual harassment essay these are totally unsuitable for the task — they just report raw number of claims per industry. Is this thanks to their uniquely progressive culture — or because there are practically no female miners?
The takeaway that most real researchers take from the EEOC claims is that the lowest-paying and most mundane occupations — retail, restaurant work, hotel work, etc — have much higher sexual harassment rates than the prestigious occupations people generally talk about.
Eyeballing the data, this looks basically true. But trying to get anything more fine-grained than that out of EEOC is basically hopeless.
I only know of two surveys that have even attempted to compare different fields in a principled way, and neither really inspires confidence.
First is a survey by Cosmopolitan magazine, that asked women in different fields about sexual harassment in their industry. Second is the Project XX Surveywhere the automotive industry decided to survey their workers using methodology previously used in Silicon Valley, which made their results at least somewhat comparable.
The advertising and market research industries seem to have joined in later. I interpret existing data in this area as being basically useless, but at least suggestive that the media focus on a few prestigious industries is mistargeted. The Slate Star Codex survey is an online poll of readers of this blog about various aspects of their life and personality.
This year 8, people participated. The survey asked a set of questions on sexual harassment, providing a unique dataset with which to investigate the question. This made it impossible to investigate the restaurant and retail industries that previous research suggests have the most problems.
But there were still enough responses to get a wide cross-section of white-collar occupations and academic fields. Respondents were asked four questions: Have you ever been sexually harassed or assaulted at work?
Have you ever been sexually harassed or assaulted outside of work? Have you ever made unwanted sexual advances to someone at work that you think they interpreted as sexual harassment or assault?
Have you ever made unwanted sexual advances to someone outside of work that you think they interpreted as sexual harassment or assault? Data were analyzed about female victims, male victims, and male perpetrators.
Although some women admitted to perpetration, the sample size across fields was too small to be useful. Industries were included if they had a sample size greater than thirty; because there were more male respondents and so all industries had a greater male sample size, some industries are included on the male graphs but not the female graphs.
Made by taking each of the three previous graphs, standardizing each field to percent of the worst field in that category, and then adding them up and dividing by three to get an average for each field But this combines three different things.
First, the actual rate of harassment. Second, a measure of how willing people are to report harassment. And third, a measure of how willing people are to consider some specific act to be harassing.
This is a major problem. People from traditionalist cultures and subcultures may have a higher threshold for calling something harassing; if for examplemore traditional people go into Business, and more socially liberal people go into Art, that could skew the numbers.
In order to control for this and other factors, I asked subjects how often they are harassed outside of work.
Of note, men, women, victims, perpetrators, everybody in every industry, reported much more sexual harassment outside of work than in it.
Although there were enough female perpetrators to do statistics on this time, I left them out to keep it as similar to the in-work data as possible. Levels of at-work harassment and out-of-work harassment correlate at 0.Social media has created a remarkable moment for women, but is this really the end of the harassment culture?
Nov 05, · After Anita Hill’s televised testimony in about Clarence Thomas’s behavior, sexual harassment complaints to the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission increased 73 percent.
These are all the men in Hollywood, politics, business and more accused of sexual assault and harassment since the Harvey Weinstein scandal.
Introduction There are no precise, reliable statistics on the amount of computer crime and the economic loss to victims, partly because many of these crimes are apparently not detected by victims, many of these crimes are never reported to authorities, and partly because the losses are often difficult to .
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Pay Data Collection and the EEO-1 Survey. Acting Chair Victoria A. Lipnic has issued a statement about the OMB Decision on EEO-1 Pay Data Collection.
Instructions for filing the EEO-1 Survey, which will not include the collection of pay and hours worked data, are now available.. Final Rules on Employer Wellness Programs.