It covers the music from to In the Middle Ages, music was dominated by the Church. Most composition was for sacred use and based on the plain chant that had been part of worship since the earliest years of Christianity.
Beginning in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, philosophy, art, music, politics, science, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry.
Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, and searched for realism and human emotion in art. It is in their new focus on literary and historical texts that Renaissance scholars differed so markedly from the medieval scholars of the Renaissance of the 12th centurywho had focused on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural sciences, philosophy and mathematics, rather than on such cultural texts.
Portrait of a Young Woman c. However, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion that was reflected in many other areas of cultural life.
This new engagement with Greek Christian works, and particularly the return to the original Greek of the New Testament promoted by humanists Lorenzo Valla and Erasmuswould help pave the way for the Protestant Reformation.
Well after the first artistic return to classicism had been exemplified in the sculpture of Nicola PisanoFlorentine painters led by Masaccio strove to portray the human form realistically, developing techniques to render perspective and light more naturally.
A critical contribution to Italian Renaissance humanism Giovanni Pico della Mirandola wrote the famous text "De hominis dignitate" Oration on the Dignity of Man, which consists of a series of theses on philosophy, natural thought, faith and magic defended against any opponent on the grounds of reason.
In addition to studying classical Latin and Greek, Renaissance authors also began increasingly to use vernacular languages; combined with the introduction of printingthis would allow many more people access to books, especially the Bible.
Some scholars, such as Rodney Stark play down the Renaissance in favor of the earlier innovations of the Italian city-states in the High Middle Ageswhich married responsive government, Christianity and the birth of capitalism.
This analysis argues that, whereas the great European states France and Spain were absolutist monarchies, and others were under direct Church control, the independent city republics of Italy took over the principles of capitalism invented on monastic estates and set off a vast unprecedented commercial revolution that preceded and financed the Renaissance.
Italian Renaissance View of Florencebirthplace of the Renaissance Many argue that the ideas characterizing the Renaissance had their origin in late 13th-century Florencein particular with the writings of Dante Alighieri — and Petrarch —as well as the paintings of Giotto di Bondone — Some writers date the Renaissance quite precisely; one proposed starting point iswhen the rival geniuses Lorenzo Ghiberti and Filippo Brunelleschi competed for the contract to build the bronze doors for the Baptistery of the Florence Cathedral Ghiberti won.
Yet it remains much debated why the Renaissance began in Italy, and why it began when it did. Accordingly, several theories have been put forward to explain its origins.
During the Renaissance, money and art went hand in hand. Artists depended entirely on patrons while the patrons needed money to foster artistic talent. Wealth was brought to Italy in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries by expanding trade into Asia and Europe.
Silver mining in Tyrol increased the flow of money. Luxuries from the Eastern world, brought home during the Crusadesincreased the prosperity of Genoa and Venice. Please improve the article or discuss the issue.
June Coluccio Salutati In stark contrast to the High Middle Ageswhen Latin scholars focused almost entirely on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural science, philosophy and mathematics,  Renaissance scholars were most interested in recovering and studying Latin and Greek literary, historical, and oratorical texts.
Ancient Greek works on science, maths and philosophy had been studied since the High Middle Ages in Western Europe and in the medieval Islamic world normally in translationbut Greek literary, oratorical and historical works such as Homer, the Greek dramatists, Demosthenes and Thucydides were not studied in either the Latin or medieval Islamic worlds; in the Middle Ages these sorts of texts were only studied by Byzantine scholars.
One of the greatest achievements of Renaissance scholars was to bring this entire class of Greek cultural works back into Western Europe for the first time since late antiquity. Arab logicians had inherited Greek ideas after they had invaded and conquered Egypt and the Levant.
Their translations and commentaries on these ideas worked their way through the Arab West into Iberia and Sicilywhich became important centers for this transmission of ideas. From the 11th to the 13th century, many schools dedicated to the translation of philosophical and scientific works from Classical Arabic to Medieval Latin were established in Iberia.
Most notably the Toledo School of Translators. This work of translation from Islamic culture, though largely unplanned and disorganized, constituted one of the greatest transmissions of ideas in history.
Social and political structures in Italy A political map of the Italian Peninsula circa The unique political structures of late Middle Ages Italy have led some to theorize that its unusual social climate allowed the emergence of a rare cultural efflorescence.
Italy did not exist as a political entity in the early modern period. Instead, it was divided into smaller city states and territories: Fifteenth-century Italy was one of the most urbanised areas in Europe.Lesson Plan III A comparison in musical styles of a composer of the Harlem Renaissance and a Rap composer of today can be made.
Approximately a week before this activity is scheduled prepare a tape with at least two artist, one Jazz artist (Ex. Ellington), and one Rap artist (Ex. L.L. Coo1 J). The work of the most famous artist of the proto-renaissance period, Giotto (/67 or –), trained in music, art, writing, and science.
Becoming a patron of artists and intellectuals was one way that Italian elites could display their wealth during the Renaissance. The Renaissance was also the beginning of the age of globalization.
During this period, the European powers and later their former colonies, began a political, economic, and cultural colonization of the world.
Renaissance music is vocal and instrumental music written and performed in Europe during the Renaissance era. Consensus among music historians has been to start the era around , with the end of the medieval era, and to close it around , with the beginning of the Baroque period, therefore commencing the musical Renaissance about a hundred years after the beginning of the Renaissance . Renaissance or "rebirth," a period of significant changes in history, including music. - - Guillaume Dufay, known as the transitional figure to the Renaissance. - - During this period composers experimented with cantus firmus. Overview. The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern caninariojana.coming in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, philosophy, art, music, politics, science, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry.
From the Renaissance era both secular and sacred music survives in quantity, and both vocal and instrumental.
An enormous diversity of musical styles and genres flourished during the Renaissance, and can be heard on commercial recordings in the twenty-first century, including masses, motets, madrigals, chansons, accompanied songs, . The Renaissance typically refers to a period in European history approximately between and Many historians assert that it started earlier or ended later, depending on the country.
Music was an essential part of civic, religious, and courtly life in the Renaissance. The rich interchange of ideas in Europe, as well as political, economic, and religious events in the period – led to major changes in styles of composing, methods of disseminating music, new musical genres, and the development of musical instruments.