See more information about these article types Full papers These contain original scientific work that has not been published previously. However, work that has appeared in print in a short form such as a Communication is normally acceptable.
It is a multidisciplinary science that uses concepts and knowledge from many disciplines such as biochemistry, ecology, genetics, pathology, and epidemiology.
More specifically, the branch of environmental toxicology examines how environmental exposures to chemical pollutants may present risk to biological systems. As toxicants are omnipresent in Toxicology research paper lives, understanding the nature of these chemicals and the adverse effects that they may cause, is vital.
Furthermore, understanding the biologic significance of these adverse health effects is critical to assessing the health risks associated with environmental exposure, for developing safety standards, and for developing cost-effective risk management strategies.
Factors that affect responses to a toxic chemical include route of entry into the body, dose of the chemical received, duration of exposure, interactions that transpire among multiple chemicals, and individual sensitivity to the chemical.
Other factors include age, gender, reproductive status, overall health and nutrition, genetics, lifestyle factors, and previous sensitization. Route of entry into the body affects the toxicity of chemicals differently. Toxicants can be ingested by mouth, inhaled by nose, absorbed through the skin, or injected intravenously, intramuscularly, intraperitoneally, or subcutaneously.
The toxicity of each chemical can vary depending upon the route of exposure. The dose of chemical that is received also affects the toxic response of a chemical. Generally, the magnitude of the response is due to the amount of the dose that was received by the body.
As a chemical is administered, only a portion of that chemical is biologically available for absorption into the bloodstream. Multiple chemical interactions can also affect the toxicity of a chemical. Exposure to more than one chemical simultaneously can produce the following effects: Individual sensitivity to a chemical is another important factor affecting the toxicity of a chemical.
Chemical allergies or idiosyncrasies may occur on an individual basis. Additionally, the duration of exposure to a chemical is another factor affecting toxicity. The severity of adverse health effects associated with exposure to toxicants generally depends upon the duration of exposure; acute, subacute, sub-chronic, or chronic.
More often, the reaction from chronic exposure to toxic chemicals is most severe, however, depending upon the chemical, some chemicals, known as acute toxins, can elicit health complications with acute exposure.
Acute toxicity describes the adverse effects of a substance that result either from a single exposure or from multiple exposures between 24 to 96 hours. Acute toxicity differs from chronic toxicity, which describes the adverse health effects from repeated, lower concentrations of exposures to a substance over an extended period of time.
In essence, the toxicity of a chemical refers to the degree to which a substance can damage an organism. Toxicity can refer to the effect on a whole biological organism, such as an animal or plant, substructure of the organism, such as a cell, an organ, such as the kidneys, or an organ system such as the cardiovascular system.
The toxicity of a chemical is usually determined by computing the lethal dose or LD Paracelsus was a medieval alchemist who was coined, the Father of Toxicology.
The right dose differentiates a poison from a remedy. The toxicity of a substance increases as the dose increases. All chemical substances will exhibit a toxic effect given a large enough dose, no matter the chemical; at very low doses, even the most toxic chemicals known will cause no discernable effect on humans, while at very high doses, even essential substances like oxygen and water will harm or kill.
The toxic potency of a chemical is thus ultimately defined by the amount of the chemical that will produce a specific response in a specific biological system.
In the process of exposure assessment, quantitative measures of exposure are used: Exposure assessment identifies populations exposed to the toxicant, describes their composition and size, and examines the roots, magnitudes, frequencies, and durations of such exposures.
Exposure assessment provides answers to the following questions: Who or what biological organism or system is being exposed? How often and how long does this exposure occur? The concentration of the chemical and the extent of the contact are important components of exposure assessment.
The results of an exposure assessment are often considered with a hazard assessment of the chemical. A hazard assessment provides an understanding of the potential for the chemical to cause adverse effects to humans and plant and animal life.
Together, the exposure assessment and the hazard assessment can be combined into a risk assessment, which reaches conclusions about the likelihood of adverse effects in the exposed population.
EPA, Exposure assessments estimate concentrations and exposures in the environment using models and monitoring data.Toxicology is an international, peer-reviewed journal that publishes only the highest quality original scientific research and critical reviews on mechanisms of toxicity associated with exposures to foreign chemicals.
Toxicology Research Journal Impact Factor, Health Care Journal, Medicine Journal, Microbiology Journal, Toxicology Journal, Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology,Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Mutation Research - Reviews in Genetic Toxicology, Journal of Medical Toxicology.
Toxicology Research Papers Research Papers on toxicology discuss the study of the negative effects of chemicals on human systems. Toxicology is the study of the .
Toxicology Research Paper The drug is then identified by looking at the shape of the crystals (Murphy, 16 Oct. ). Chemical and toxins can be classified as class or individual evidence.
Toxicology Reports is dedicated to all aspects of toxicology research and clinical sciences.
The journal strives to provide a forum for original research papers pertaining to, . Toxicology Reports is dedicated to all aspects of toxicology research and clinical sciences.
The journal strives to provide a forum for original research papers pertaining to, but not limited to, the following subjects.